EPOLA: A New Approach to the Fine Structure of Matter and Space
Menahem Simhony
Retired Associate Professor, Physics Section 5, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

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The so called "empty" or "free" or "vacuum" space IS NOT EMPTYFree space, more or less empty or evacuated of atomic matter, contains wealths of tiny nuclear particles, especially electrons and positrons, far apart from one another.

In our free space, these particles form a rare, cubic Electron POsitron Lattice or EPOLA.  Epola particles are bound to one another by a binding energy of 1.02 MeV, a hundred thousand times the binding energies in strongest bound atomic solids.

Absorption of the 1.02 MeV energy in any point of space frees an electron and a positron out of epola bounds there.  When a pair of such free particles is caught into epola bounds, their binding energy is emitted in two or more energy quanta.

There is no turning of energy into particles, nor of particles into energy, no particle "creation", nor "annihilation".   In the E=mc2 formula, E is the energy of quanta absorbed or emitted in the epola space, and m is the mass of freed (appearing) or caught (disappearing) electron positron pairs.

The Epola Model provides physical explanations to all known physical phenomena, occurring outside nuclear particles.

"Modern Physics" is based on the physically infeasible model of an "Absolutely Empty Space".  This physics is thus unable to explain physical phenomena, but provides some working mathematical solutions to many physical problems.

Modern Physics ceased to be a NATURAL Science, became a Mathematical Science, kind of applied math.  It denies the very existence of physical explanations, let alone the need in them, and considers Nature an Absurd .

For more arguments and explanations, you can:

Read the  Major Arguments (down on this page)

Read an introductory article  Why are there:  Inertia,  Gravity,  Quantization,  the other  "unexplainable"  facts of nature, and what is the real meaning of  E=mc2

Some more articles:

Glance at the Booklet The Story of  MATTER AND SPACE
Physics Section 5, The Hebrew University, 1999 (72 pages).

Glance at my Book  Invitation to the Natural Physics of Matter, Space, and Radiation, World Scientific Publishing Co., 1994 (294 pages)

See Author's Publications & Affiliations

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The Major Arguments

1. Since Rutherford’s Experiments (1911), we know that Atoms and Atomic bodies are in their fine structure incredibly rare and discrete, not "dense and continuous", as perceived. All atomic bodies, including ourselves, our belongings, and earth, are incredibly rare networks of nuclei and orbiting electrons. Thus, e.g., if the dot at the end of a sentence here is to represent an atomic nucleus, then the nucleus of the next nearest atom is represented by a dot tens of meters away.

2. The Michelson-Morley Experiments showed in 1887, that the motion of earth does not cause winds in the light-carrying medium in space. This result was then, and still is, misinterpreted to say that there is no material carrier of light at all, but an absolutely empty space. The Rutherford results help us to reject this misinterpretation. Indeed, motions of atomic bodies, of those rare networks of particles, through a sufficiently rare discrete medium would not "bulldoze" it, nor could the motions cause winds or currents in the medium. Thus, the results imply only, that Any light-carrying medium cannot be continuous, but must be discrete and rare.

3. The Anderson Experiments proved in 1932, that Absorption of a Gamma-ray energy quantum of 1.02 million electron volts (1.02 MeV) in any point of space makes a free electron and positron pair appear there. When such a pair of particles disappears in any point of space, there are two (at least) quanta emitted, of total energy 1.02 MeV. These results were and are misinterpreted by relativists, claiming that here radiation turns into electrons and positrons, creates them, and that electrons and positrons turn, or annihilate into energy.  But, "appearance" does not necessarily mean "creation". Moreover, never was a single electron or positron created out of empty space nor annihilated into empty space, even with the now available energies up to a million MeV. Clearly, 1.02 MeV cannot create in empty space an electron and a positron, if up to million MeV energies cannot create there even one of these particles. Hence, these particles must be existing in space, bound to one another by the 1.02 MeV energy.

4. Similar processes occur in sodium chloride (table salt) crystals. The lattice unit of the crystal consists of a sodium ion, the charge of which is that of a positron, and of a chlorine ion, having the charge of an electron. The ions are bound to one another by a binding energy of 8 electron volts (8 eV) per ion pair. When ultraviolet radiation of 8 eV quanta is absorbed in the crystal, a pair of ions is freed there per each such absorbed quantum. The freed ions can be detected by the opaqueness and conductivity they cause in the crystal. When irradiation ceases, the freed ions "fall" into bonds, the crystal regains transparency, loses conductivity and emits energy, totaling 8 eV per each ion pair caught into the bonds. Clearly, 8 eV cannot and does not create the pair of ions, nor does or can the mass of the pair turn into 8 eV.

5. We thus interpret the result of Anderson's Experiment as showing that the so called "empty" or "vacuum" space contains electrons and positrons, bound to one another by a binding energy of 1.02 MeV per pair. Absorption of this energy frees the pair out of bonds, making the freed particles appear to the detecting apparatus. When a free electron-positron pair is captured into bonds, the particles disappear from our detection, and their binding energy is emitted in at least two quanta of radiation. The particles exist in space, bound in a rare Electron POsitron LAttice or EPOLA, (accent on O, please).

6. The EPOLA is a cubic lattice of the sodium chloride type. (Figures 1,2) Substituting the values of the binding energy E and the mass m of the sodium chlorine ion pair to the formula E=mc2, we find the velocity of elastic (sound) waves in sodium chloride, c=3.6 km/s (kilometers per second).

7. Substituting the values of the binding energy and the mass of the electron positron pair to the E=mc2 formula, we found the velocity of elastic waves in the epola to be equal to the velocity of light, c=300,000 km/s. Hence, the velocity of light c in the "free" or "vacuum" space is the velocity of elastic waves in our epola. This result, too, strengthens our assumptions.

Figure 1.  The Sodium-Chloride-Type Cubic Lattice. Light circles represent positive charges (of sodium ions in the table salt crystal, of positrons in the epola). Dark circles represent negative charges (of chlorine ions in the crystal, of electrons in the epola). In the scale of the edges l0 of the cubes, the radii of the circles are 3 to 5 times too small to depict the radii of the ions, and 6 times too large to depict the radii of epola electrons and positrons.


Figure 2.  Unit Cubes of the Epola.   The epola space in front of an approaching free nuclear particle  or atomic nucleus.

8. In general, the E=mc2 formula governs the appearance and disappearance of free electron-positron pairs in space, thus the freeing of such pairs out of bonds in the epola and their capture into the bonds. Here E is the energy of quanta absorbed (or emitted) in the epola space, m is the mass of freed (appearing) or caught (disappearing) electron positron pairs, and c is the velocity of light. This is the real physical meaning of E=mc2.

Dr. M. Simhony, 33 Shoham Street, 34679 Haifa, Israel
Fax: 972 4 825 1681. E-mail: msimhony@hotmail.com

Top of Page  /   The Booklet   /  The Book  /  Publications   /  Affiliations

More Articles:


Why are there: Inertia, Gravity, Quantization, the other "Unexplainable" Facts of Nature
and What is the Real Meaning of E=mc


"Expanding Universe" - The Greatest Mathematical Deception in 20th Century Physics


The "Mass - Energy Equivalence" Deception, the Second Greatest in 20th Century Physics


The Direct Results of the Michelson-Morley Experiments and What do They Realy Prove


The Michelson-Morley “NO ETHER WINDS THUS NO ETHER” Verdict and its  Impact on Replacing Physical Explanations by Calculative and Postulatory Trickery


The Alleged "Dependence of Mass on Velocity", Another Misinterpretation of Mathemathical Results that Ruined our Prospects to Understand Physics


Sublumic, Lumic, and Superlumic Motion of Nuclear Particles in our Region of the EPOLA Space


Velocity Limits of Atomic Bodies in our Region of the EPOLA Space,  and the Unreachability of yet the Proxima Star


Updated:  12/2000

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