"EXPANDING UNIVERSE"-THE GREATEST
MATHEMATICAL DECEPTION IN 20-TH CENTURY PHYSICS
1. Blueshifts, Redshifts, and the Doppler Effect. Based on the Faraday’s dielectric ether wave-theory of light, C.J.Doppler derived in 1842, that when the source (emitter) and/or the receiver (observer) of light move toward each other, then the frequency f ’ of the received light is higher than the frequency f of light received when they are at rest. The frequencies of the received light, with all its spectral colors and lines, are thus shifted toward the higher frequency blue light. The received light is blue-shifted, by the difference between these frequencies, f ’ - f.
The ratio (f ’ - f)/f , is the blueshift value of the light. When the emitter and/or receiver move away from one another, the frequency of the received light is lowered, red-shifted, by f ’ - f. The ratio (f ’ - f)/f , is the redshift value of the light. Doppler found that the blueshifts or redshifts are equal to the velocity v of the emitter relative to the receiver, divided by the velocity of light c. The formula for the Doppler effect is thus (f ’- f)/f = v/c.
Therefore, e.g., if mother Earth would be moving toward (instead of around) the sun with Her velocity of 30 km/s, a ten-thousandth of the velocity of light (v/c=0.0001), we would observe in our spectrometers, that the frequencies of all lines in the sunlight spectrum are blueshifted by a ten-thousandth of their "normal" values f. Moving with this velocity away from the Sun, we would observe a redshift of all spectral lines by a ten-thousandth of their "normal" frequencies f.
Doppler's derivations disagreed with the false "accepted scientific knowledge" that "the velocity of the emitter shall just add to the velocity of the emitted light". Doppler’s work was published, because this was the golden era of "freedom of publication" in science. However it was bitterly opposed by scientists during two decades. It did not help that the Doppler Effect could be observed in the higher pitch (or frequency) of the sound of the whistle of an approaching locomotive, and in the reduced frequency or lower pitch, when the locomotive moved away. Doppler died in 1853, unappreciated for his great discovery.
In 1860, Ernst Mach suggested that the Doppler Effect might be observed in spectra of light from stars. In 1868, W.Huggins observed redshifts and blueshifts in such spectra, from which stars were found moving away and toward us with velocities ranging from 0.3 to ~100 km/s.
2. Absorption of Waves and Absorptional Redshift. Each material medium, no matter how
carefully formed, always contains some irregularities. When a wave in a medium
reaches an irregularity, then the wave energy may be absorbed,
i.e., swallowed or caught in the medium, in or around the irregularity,
i.e., in the absorbing
center. Absorption can
be linear or non-linear, partial or complete, and forever or temporary, i.e.,
followed by re-emission. Numbers of all absorption events increase
with, 1), the distance crossed by the wave in the medium, and with,
2), the concentration of absorbing centers in the medium (along
the wave’s direction of propagation).
Linear absorption reduces the vibrational energy of particles constituting the wave-carrying medium. This is expressed in the reduced intensity of light or sound (reduced "volume"). In non-linear absorption, the frequency of the wave decreases. This happens, e.g., when absorbing atoms re-emit light of lower frequency. Even when the number of non-linear absorption events is insignificant compared with the number of linear events, waves received after passing long distances have reduced intensities and frequencies. Sounds from far away have a lower pitch. Radio waves, which traveled over our globe, fade to a lower frequency.
Consider, e.g., sunlight reaching us after sunrise and before sunset, when the full disk of the sun is seen well above ("palm off") the horizon. This sunlight crosses long distances in layers of air, adjacent to the surface of earth, where the concentration of absorbing centers is much higher than in the upper levels of atmosphere. The intensity of this sunlight is significantly reduced by linear absorption, allowing us to look at the disk of the sun without damage to our eyes.
In addition, the disk of the sun is seen reddish in color, and so is also our hanging-to-dry snow-white laundry. Hence, sunlight reaching our eyes (and the laundry) went also through non-linear absorption events that shifted some light frequencies toward the lower frequency red light, and resulted in this absorptional redshift of light.
3. The Gravitational Redshift
and Bending of Light. In a 1911 paper, A.Einstein stated that light propagating
near a massive star must be gravitationally attracted to the star and accelerated
toward it. Therefore, the velocity of light passing near the star must continuously
increase, with a bending
toward the star. When light moves out or away from a star, the attraction toward
the star will continuosly reduce the light velocity. This results in reducing
the frequencies of all spectral components of the light, thus in a gravitational redshift.
In this and other trials to explain the phenomena, Einstein "forgot" that nothing can be physically added to or deducted from the velocity of light in his empty space, and denied his own 1905 postulate of the universal constancy of light velocity in that empty space. Though his formulae for the gravitational redshift and bending of light are based on false reasoning and not always yield the observed values, these phenomena are well established physical facts, explainable by the electron positron lattice (epola) structure of space.
In the epola model, bending of light and gravitational redshifts are due to the gravitational deformation of the epola in and near massive stars. In a deformed epola region, the distances between the bound epola particles change, altering also the densities of energy and mass. This changes the photon energy and the velocity of light, that are determined by these densities. Beams of light approach a massive star through epola layers of increasing distortion, and leave through layers of gradually decreasing distortion. By laws of optics, the light beams bend toward the star, similar to the bending of light from objects seen in a mirage.
4. Expressing Gravitational and Absorptional
Redshifts in Terms of Doppler Shifts. Einstein’s formula yields for the gravitational redshift in
the spectra of our sun the right value of 2x10-6. At those
times, all redshifts observed in the spectra of stars (Huggins), of canal rays
(Stark), of mechanically propelled light sources (Majorana), were rightfully
handled as due to the Doppler Effect, that became a quite popular and busy tool
in physics and technology.
The 2x10-6 value of the sun’s gravitational redshift was therefore said "equal to a Doppler shift in a runaway motion of the sun with a speed of 0.6 km/s".[reference] Expressing the gravitational redshift value in terms of an equal Doppler redshift was and is rightful when done for comparison or appraisal; it did not and should never imply any real motion of the sun or other light source.
Unfortunately, to obtain calculable, thus publishable and "fundable" results out of observed gravitational and/or absorptional redshifts in spectra of sources that are far away from our galaxy (the Milky Way), we would have to "know the unknown!" Namely, the distribution in space of significant masses and/or absorbing centers along the whole paths of radiations on their way from their sources to our apparatuses. Contrariwise, by falsely presenting these redshifts as Doppler shifts, we get the wanted awardable (but deceiving!) results.
5. The Hubble-Humason Physical Law. In 1929, E.Hubble and M.L.Humason discovered
that light from extragalaxial nebulae is redshifted. Knowing the approximate
distances to each observed nebula, they found that "redshifts in the spectra of light from extra-galactic nebulae
are roughly proportional to our distance from them". This is the physical
Hubble-Humason (H-H) law
of the proportionality of nebular redshifts to the distance crossed by the nebular light on its way to earth.
Because of the high popularity of the Doppler Effect then (after the First World War), Hubble and Humason, too, expressed the observed redshift values, "for convenience", "in terms of equivalent Doppler shifts". The observed redshift values corresponded to Doppler shifts at runaway speeds of 100 km/s per every megaparsec distance to a given nebula. This value, (100 km/s)/Mpc, is the Hubble Constant.
The 2x10-6 gravitational redshift, caused by the sun on its distance to earth, which is one astronomical unit, 1au, can be expressed in terms of a Doppler shift equal to (0.6 km/s)/au=(124,000 km/s)/pc. This is a billion times the Hubble Constant! Hence, if all celestial objects, located along the path of light from an extragalaxial nebula would create, per astronomical unit of distance, a billionth of the gravitational distortion, created by the sun, then this would already be sufficient to consider the Hubble-Humason Redshifts as due to Einstein’s Gravitational Redshift (see paragraph 3).
A megaparsec (Mpc) is a million parsec (pc), and 1 pc is 206,265 au (astronomical unit, the earth-to-sun distance,
1 au=~150 million km). Also, 1 pc= 3.26 light-year distances.
6. Falsification of the Hubble-Humason Law. Unprejudiced (and honest) scientists,
who observe redshift values that depend on distance,
would consider factors acting on light along this distance. These factors are absorption
and gravitation. The redshifts they cause are roughly proportional to the distance
crossed by light, because the numbers of non-linear absorption events and of
massive stars increase with distance. Hence these two phenomena fit perfectly
the Hubble-Humason Law.
Unfortunately for Natural Physics, some mathematicians in physics had long before decided that the universe is expanding, therefore celestial objects must run away from us. When they found out about the Hubble-Humason Redshifts, they decided that those must be Doppler redshifts, to serve as the first and only "experimental" proof of the expansion. That was Act 1, for internal use. In Act 2, for the public, students, and media, the argumentation was turned around, to start with the barefaced lie, that "spectra of extragalaxial nebulae show large Doppler (!) redshifts". Then, that "these redshifts prove (!) that the nebulae run away from us", hence "the universe is expanding".
However, Doppler redshifts and blueshifts are proportional to the velocity of the emitter relative to the receiver of radiation. They have nothing to do with the distance to the emitter. Hence, Doppler redshifts do not fit the physical Hubble-Humason law of the proportionality of nebular redshifts to distance. In Act 3, the law was therefore twisted (falsified!) to say that "the runaway velocities of extragalaxial nebulae are proportional to the distances to them". Thus, the farther a nebula the faster must the poor thing run away from us, just in order to fit the ideology.
7. The Alleged Superlumic Runaway of Galaxies. With the development of astrophysical
instrumentation, more extragalaxial nebulae were discovered and found to be
galaxies, i.e., tremendously large collectives of billions
of stars and other bodies. They all showed the Hubble-Humason redshifts,
roughly proportional to their distance from us.
When the "penetration depth" of our telescopes into the universe exceeded a giga-parsec (1000 Mpc), the falsified Hubble-Humason law meant that runaway velocities of galaxies approach there the velocity of light! By Einstein’s 1905 dependence of mass on velocity this means that the mass of each star, planet, every stone in each of those runaway galaxies should become infinite. What then about the gravitational redshift of stars there, will they emit light at all, will the emitted light reach us, and when, etc., etc. And the fact that it reaches us, doesn’t it mean that, rephrasing Hamlet and Shakespeare, "many a something must be wrong in the state of 20-th century physics".
Amazingly, all this did not frighten the expanders of the universe. It does not frighten them even now, when the "penetration depth" of telescopes exceeds 500 gigaparsec, so that the runaway velocities should be there hundreds of times higher than the velocity of light. They progressed to an exploding universe, created in the Big Bang from a subpoint in space in an octillionth of an octillionth of a second, as many billions of years ago as the particular calculator likes. The universe is still exploding, allegedly, and will do so for so many and so more years, just to fit his calculations, keep the swindle going on and conquer humanity.
8. Possible Physical Causes of the Fivefold Variability
of the Hubble Constant.
The observed values of the Hubble Constant vary from ~30 to ~150 km/s
per megaparsec distance, depending on the kind of galaxy, the direction to it,
etc. This contradicts the fundamental beliefs of relativists. They believe that
all galaxies at any given distance from us must
runaway with equal speeds, because "the
universe must expand uniformly in all directions".
The variability of the Hubble Constant can be easily explained by returning to the Hubble-Humason Physical Law of proportionality of galaxial redshifts to distance, and recalling that both Einstein’s Gravitational Redshifts and the Absorptional Redshifts fit perfectly this law. These two redshifts increase with distance, because the numbers of gravitationally distorted regions of space and of absorbing centers increase with distance. In addition, both gravitational and absorptional redshifts depend also on the direction to a galaxy, because the concentrations in space of gravitationally distorted regions and of absorption centers vary with direction.
The Doppler effect results in redshifts when the source of light moves away from us, and in blueshifts, when the source moves toward us. Sources of light would normally be expected to move toward us as well as away from us, as found by Huggins for stars within our galaxy. If no physical reason is seen for everything to runaway from us, then the real motions of galaxies should also cause redshifts and blueshifts, and so contribute to the variability of the Hubble constant. [refer recent anisotropy of space]
9. Dismissal of the Big Bang Creation of Universes. The reason why there was and is such
a strong interest in the runaway misinterpretation of the Hubble-Humason redshifts
is that this turns the redshift into the only available quasi-"experimental
proof" that the universe is expanding. It provides the main support
for the Big Bang theories of an ever-exploding universe. These theories
enable people with mathematical skills and artistic disregard of reality, to
compile picturesque, photogenic (and TV-genic) processes, and be pronounced
"Maker of Universes" (Einstein, 1937), "Wizard of Time and Space",
"Master of the Universe" (Hawking, 1990), etc.
The development of the Big Bang theory is based, in addition to the twisted Hubble-Humason law and the several "background" and "leftover" misinterpretations of the 3K radiation, on two postulates of relativity. First, that the speed of light in space is the same in the whole universe. Second, that the laws and postulates, established in our backyard, are equally valid in the whole universe. But what is valid here is not necessarily right at distances trillions of light years away!
The vacuum light velocity c is the velocity of bulk deformation waves in the epola. It therefore depends on local conditions in the epola space, as the velocity of sound depends on conditions in solid lattices. These are the lattice temperature, the concentration and distribution of foreign particles, lattice faults, etc. The vacuum light velocity c is certainly a very important constant in our epola region, and as far out as the mentioned conditions remain stable, but not in the whole universe.
Dismissal of the runaway interpretation of the Hubble-Humason redshifts, the reversal of the 3K "background" radiation into the thermal radiation of the epola around us, and the disproval of the universal constancy of light velocity reveal that Big Bang theories are pseudo-science fictions.
N.B. Hubble and Humason worked together at the Mount Wilson Observatory during all those years of their great discovery. Nevertheless, Humason’s name was slowly but consistently disappearing in publications, and all the credit for their work is now given to Hubble alone. Max von Laue’s History of Physics (1950), pays tribute to Hubble only and does not even mention Humason. Both names appear together in the American Institute of Physics Handbook (1972), but in Asimov’s Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (1982) there is Hubble only. Humason is not mentioned in all publicity around the recent launchings into space of Hubble Telescopes, and of the discoveries made with them (they were neither planned nor worked on by Hubble; he died long before, in 1953). Starting with his 1931 paper, Humason opposed the falsifications of the physical Hubble-Humason (H-H) law and the mispresentation of the H-H redshift as due to the Doppler Effect. Is the removal of Humason from the Hall of Fame in science and from public memory a vendetta of the "scientific community" ?
If you are interested to find out what the Epola model of space does and can do for the understanding of observed physical phenomena, I may recommend a close encounter with my book Invitation to the Natural Physics of Matter, Space, and Radiation, World Scientific Publishing Co, 1994, (292 pages, ISBN 981-02-1649-1, can be ordered from Amazon.com or Barnes & Noble).
All mathematical derivations can be found
in my Paperback, The Electron-Positron Lattice Space, Cause
of Relativity and Quantum Effects , Physics Section 5, The Hebrew University,
Jerusalem 1990 (158 pages). The Paperback, as well as my popular Booklet, The Story of Matter and
1999 (70 pages) can be ordered from Robi Guttman - firstname.lastname@example.org
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Updated: 12/2000; revised MS 10/6/07